Glossary

textile glossary

„You don't have to know everything - just where it is.“

The textile world is full of technical terms and quality designations, complicated manufacturing processes and ready-made clothing options. To help you find your way between the various products and quality features, we have summarised everything that might be of interest to you. If you have any questions, we will of course be happy to explain everything to you personally.

A

Acoustic fabric

are generally all fabrics that are used for noise reduction. All fabrics that still let air through are acoustically effective. However, there are textiles with greater and smaller effects. When a sound wave hits a textile, three things always happen: some of the waves are reflected, some are swallowed/absorbed and some of the waves pass through the textile. If a textile is coated and therefore impermeable to air, then most of the sound waves are reflected and there is almost no sound insulation. A very thick, but still very well air-permeable fabric has the best sound absorption properties. Here...

Active terry towelling

Single- or double-sided terry towelling produced on a warp knitting machine (warp knitted fabric). The pile loops are firmly anchored in the fabric base (usually polyamide). In the case of double-sided fabrics, the center of gravity of the loops (with larger loops) is always on one side of the fabric. Patterning is possible by printing, burn-out or by using coloured warp material. For terry bed linen, 75% cotton and 25% polyamide are often used. Due to the synthetic content in the basic knitted fabric, the fabric is dimensionally stable after a fixing process. Knitted terry goods are loop-resistant and are used (dimensionally stable or elastic) for terry bed linen, bathroom textiles as well as swimwear and leisurewear.

Amfori BSCI

The Amfori Business Social Compliance Initiative, or Amfori BSCI, was founded in 2003 as the Business Social Compliance Initiative (BSCI). By monitoring the supply chain, Amfori BSCI promotes social working conditions. amfori.org

Applying

Process to improve the appearance (gloss), handle, standing and weight of the goods. During finishing, fabrics are either impregnated with finishing compound or coated on one side. Due to the smooth surface, finished fabrics are dirt-repellent. Non-permanent (starch) finishing gives inferior qualities a better appearance. This finish is not washable. Permanent finishes are resistant to washing and dry cleaning to a certain extent.

Atlas weave

In contrast to the twill weave, the satin weave has a smooth, closed - apparently structureless - surface. The binding points are evenly scattered and do not touch each other either laterally or across corners. The smallest repeat of an atlas weave comprises 5 warp and 5 weft threads. As with twill, atlas-bonded fabrics are usually designated according to which thread system (warp or weft) is predominantly visible on the upper side of the fabric. If only one warp thread is lifted within the weave pattern with each weft, atlas of the weft is created; if only one warp thread is lowered, atlas of the warp is created. Weft atlas is usually woven in high weft density. Atlas weave A 1:4 (3) (weft atlas) Atlas weave A 4:1 (2) warp atlas.

 

"Ausbrenner"

Designation for textiles with transparent, lacy breakthrough effects, made of two or more fibrous materials with different chemical reactions (e.g. polyester/viscose or polyamide/cotton). The pattern is created by one of the fibre types being chemically destroyed by figurative (patterned) printing of etching liquids - or by printing reservation chemicals and subsequent treatment of the entire fabric with caustic chemicals.

B

Barleycorn

Fabric with a well-structured, coarse-grained surface. The weave type is derived from the plain weave - in such a way that multiple crossing thread floats are created in warp and weft. In short - easy to remember: Typical weave pattern: 2 warp and 2 weft threads lie crosswise floating and form the "grain". The weave is mainly used for towels made of bum wool, half-linen or linen. Barley grain fabrics are very absorbent and have a good rubbing effect due to their grainy structure.

Batiste

Fine to finest thread, canvas-binding basic fabric made of cotton, linen or half-linen. Today also commonly used for fine fabrics made of man-made fibres (cellulosic and synthetic fibres) and mixed spun fabrics. Batiste is offered raw, bleached, dyed and printed. Zefir is the name for colourful woven batiste. Mako batiste is a batiste fabric made of Egyptian maco cotton. Linen batiste is made of finest woven hechel flax. Batiste bed linen is particularly light and airy.]

Beaver

Twill-bonded (recently occasionally also plain-bonded) cotton fabric, with voluminous weft yarn (mule yarn). The fabric is so heavily napped on both sides that a fluffy, tightly closed fibre cover (Rauflor) is created. Beaver qualities are bleached, dyed and colourfully printed as bed sheets (bed sheet beaver) and bed linen sets on the market.

Blackout

is a fabric with 100% darkening. This is achieved by applying a coating to the fabric. For comparison, a Dimout fabric only achieves a 99% darkening. This also has no coating, but is woven in three layers of very fine threads, with the middle layer usually consisting of black threads. Here you can find our Blackout...

Bleaching

If the product (e.g. white goods) is to be given a pure white appearance or dyed in light pastel shades, it is bleached. Bleaching agents are used to partially or completely remove the natural dye.

Bobbin lace

Bobbin lace is handmade or imitated with the help of machines in a deceptively genuine way. Bobbin lace is made by crossing or twisting strong threads together in a pattern.

Breeding

Coloured woven (checked or striped), plain woven cotton fabrics (Cretonne, Renforcé or Linon) for bed covers. "Farmer's check" in blue/white and red/white.

Brocade Damask

(Originally silk fabrics interwoven with gold and silver threads) Today, phatasia designation for particularly fine-threaded, densely woven maco damasks and high-quality coloured damasks. Brocade damask is made from pure cotton of the best provenances. The yarns are combed, the fabric is mercerized and has a particularly high thread density. The weaving for bed linen is done in Jacquard weave. Mako brocade damask is one of the most valuable and noble bed and table linen qualities.

Bulky Damassé

Single warp and single weft fabrics, which only resemble genuine Damassé fabrics because of the rich patterning. The name Damassé is widely used in the trade for this type of fabric.

 

C

Calendering

Pressing of woven or knitted fabrics to make them smoother, shinier, more closed or more supple. This is done on finishing machines, the so-called calenders. The fabric passes through two or more rollers under high contact pressure, one of which is heated.

Canvas

is the term for very dense and tightly woven fabrics. Since the term historically refers to sailcloth, it is usually used to describe fabrics made of hemp, linen and cotton. Synthetic fibres can also be used, but it is important that the fabric is very densely woven (mostly in plain weave, but sometimes also half Panama or Panama weave) and therefore heavy (at least 250 g/sqm). Here you can find it...

Chenille

Is a velvet-like fabric whose weft consists of a special yarn (chenille yarn). In the case of the woven chenille, the warp is first woven in plain weave or leno weave and then cut in the warp direction. The woven tapes are twisted to form a roundchenille similar to a caterpillar (French chenille = caterpillar) and inserted as a weft into linen-woven fabric. Chenille fabrics are very voluminous and have a soft handle. In patterned fabrics, the unusual pattern and colour effects are the same on the upper and lower sides. Woven chenille is also often used as a decorative border on towels and soap cloths. The elaborate and therefore expensive production of chenille yarn explains the relatively high price of the articles made from it.

Coating

The term for the one- or two-sided application of coating agents (e.g. plastics such as PVC, polyurethane, etc.) to a textile fabric (woven or knitted fabrics, etc.) PVC coatings can be washed off and ironed on the reverse side up to 30° C - but are not resistant to cleaning.

Coloured fabric

Fabrics which are patterned by alternating coloured warp or weft threads - or a combination of both.

Colouring

There are three main types of dyeing: - yarn dyeing - piece dyeing - printing Depending on the type of fibre, different dyeing techniques are required. For example, mixed fabrics may have to be dyed twice. Multicoloured textiles are either coloured woven (yarn dyed) or printed. Yarn dyeing is relatively expensive and gives a certain guarantee of good colour fastness from the outset. Single-coloured textiles are usually piece-dyed, with the exception of high-quality bed damask etc. Depending on colour fastness, household textiles can withstand washing temperatures of up to 60°C or 95°C.

Colour fastness

This refers to the resistance of dyeings and prints to washing, dry cleaning, light, weather etc. It can be adapted to the requirements of the respective goods by selecting appropriate dyes.

Cladding

Designation for a production technique for knitted fabrics, whereby two different or coloured threads are processed in such a way that one (plating thread) comes to the right side of the stitches in all stitches. A quality improvement (different textile material) or a pattern can be achieved by plating. Single jersey, plated (quality for fitted sheets).

Cotton Scrim

a nettle fabric (i.e. made of cotton and in a plain weave), which is particularly lightly woven and weighs on average between 70-90 g/sq. Please have a look...

Crêpe

Collective term for fabrics which are given an irregular, granular surface appearance by over-twisted yarns (crepe yarns = crepe yarns), weave or special finish. The following designations refer to the manufacturing techniques: crêpe (genuine crepe) = (crêpe yarns in warp and/or weft), weaving crepe = (smooth yarns - crepe effect due to the weave), gaufrage crepe = (embossing), leaching crepe = (alkali print). In practice, the German term crepe is often used exclusively for "fake" crepe fabrics whose crepe character is achieved by the weave or by post-treatment.

Cretonne

Cotton cloth that is woven very roughly is called cretonne in the bed linen sector. They have an average of 24 threads/centimetre.

D

Damassé imitation

Collective term for jacquard fabrics with a rich figured pattern, mostly made of silk or rayon, imitating the real damask. Genuine damask fabrics have two wefts, with the figures standing out sharply against the warp satin ground. The gradation of the pattern contours is serrated, as in real damask. In order to achieve weft floats in addition to the basic effect in warp satin weave, so-called lifting rods (tringles) are used in addition to the Jacquard machine.

Damast

High quality, mostly floral or ornamental large patterned fabric with atlas ground. The term damask, formerly a purely technical term (multi-threaded gradation of contours), is now used by the trade almost generally for jacquard patterned fabrics in damask quality. The reciprocal use of warp and weft floats and the associated different light reflection results in a high-contrast pattern image that stands out clearly from the ground. When using large Jacquard machines, the patterning possibilities allow very large repeats (large, pictorial motifs). The silky sheen is even more intensive with special finishing (calendering). Characteristic of genuine damask are the multi-thread gradated and therefore jagged pattern contours - in contrast to the smooth pattern edges of "fake" damask (half-damask) for bed and table linen. In the case of bed linen, designations have developed over the course of time which are associated with certain quality concepts.

Dimout

darken rooms up to 99%. They are woven in three layers of very fine threads, with the middle layer usually consisting of black threads. The outer layers are then usually white or dyed. A blackout has a 100% darkening effect - but this can only be achieved with a fabric by coating it. A dimout has no coating and is only woven. Here...

Dobby weaving

is a technique in which, in contrast to Jacquard weaving (individual lifting) with the aid of heald frames controlled by a dobby, a multitude of warp threads are always raised and lowered together by one heald frame for shedding. As a rule, this production technique is used for small weave patterns (e.g. faconné).

Double piqué

Fabric with upper and lower warp. It has two right sides and resembles a hollow fabric. The two ground warps work with the ground wefts in plain weave. The intermediate wefts (filling wefts) lie loose (hollow) in the fabric and fill it. Connecting threads (such as binding warp, binding weft or fabric change) hold the fabric layers together and create a raised pattern that can be used on both sides.

Dralon

Dralon GmbH is the largest manufacturer of dry and wet spun acrylic fiber worldwide. The brand acrylic of the Dralon company is used in about 80 percent of our products and makes our blankets so incredibly soft and at the same time easy to clean. Learn more: http://www.dralon.com/

Dump

This down-proof fabric is produced in plain weave. Basically, only high-quality, combed, finely spun cotton spun in the number range Nm 70 to Nm 100 (in exceptional cases up to Nm 135) is used. Sometimes the name Einschütte is also called Cambric or down percale if it is printed Einütte.

E

Easy to clean

There is not yet a uniform, internationally valid definition for this term. In the Federal Republic of Germany today, it is the general term for finishing or refinement measures that make textiles easy to care for. This means that they can be washed without any particular effort, dry quickly and without creasing and do not need to be ironed (smoothed) or only slightly ironed (ironed). In a broader sense, the term easy-care also includes, for example, the easy removal of soiling (stain and soil-repellent finish). See also "Scotchgard" and "Teflon".

Embroideries

Surface designs in which embroidery threads are pulled by hand or machine through an embroidery ground (embroidery ground), e.g. woven or knitted fabric. The embroidery ground can be completely or partially removed later in certain processes.

 

Embroidery basic material

Collective term for all fabrics that are decorated by embroidery as an embroidery ground (embroidery ground).

Eyelet embroidery

With this type of embroidery, hole motifs form the desired patterning effect. First of all a raw basic fabric (mainly batiste) is clamped in a large knitting machine. Then the hole contours are embroidered with raw thread, then drilled with drills and finally embroidered or bordered with a firm stitch (satin stitch). Only by gassing (burning off protruding fibre hairs) does the embroidered border become clean and smooth. Finally, the fabric is bleached or dyed, and sometimes additionally printed.

F

Faconné

The designation is reserved for fabrics (mostly fashionable fabrics) with small weave patterns, which are produced on the dobby. Additional terms in the pattern: rayé -longitudinally striped travers - cross-striped quadrillé - checkered or diced.

 

Fibres

Description of the fibres.

The following fibres are mainly processed in the "Household Textiles" sector:

I. Natural fibres

Cotton: The seed fibre of the cotton plant is the most important fibre in the household textiles sector (market share 64%). Its most important quality feature is the fibre length (staple length).


Characteristics/properties:

  • very absorbent (water retention capacity 45-65%)
  • can absorb almost 10% of its weight in water without feeling any moisture; therefore top position wherever textiles come into direct contact with the skin
  • "skin-friendly" - does not scratch or chafe, does not cause allergies
  • creases easily; however, creasing tendency can be considerably reduced by finishing processes
  • can be bleached or dyed wash and lightfast
  • is insensitive to high washing and ironing temperatures and robust washing treatment


Linen (flax) bast fibre obtained from the stems of the flax plant Linen is made of cellulose
more tear-resistant than cotton, but less elastic.

Characteristics/properties:

  • very hard-wearing, resistant to boiling and washing
  • lint-free (ideal for glass and dish towels)
  • creases easily; therefore often equipped with a crease-resistant finish

Pure linen: warp and weft of pure linen (100% linen)
Half-linen: warp of pure cotton, weft of pure linen; linen content must not be less than 40%.

II. Chemical fibres

Viscose fibre (rayon): fibre made from regenerated cellulose; obtained, for example, from beech wood (e.g. registered trademark "Modal")

Characteristics/properties:

  • strength lower than cotton
  • creases slightly
  • sensitive to high washing and ironing temperatures
  • for home laundry the fibre is usually only available on the market in combination with cotton
  • High-gloss effects

Used in bed linen as an admixture to cotton to achieve increased suppleness and better gloss.


Polyester fibre synthetic fibre, which accounts for a high proportion of total man-made fibre production


Characteristics/properties:

  • high stability
  • has good resistance to acids, light and weather
  • has only low moisture absorption (water retention capacity 3-5%)
  • dry quickly
  • is hardly biologically degradable
  • pill light

Finishing

A whole series of operations is required to give the raw material (as it comes from the loom, knitting or knitting machine) its appearance and the use and care properties required by the consumer. Textile finishing or finishing means all the chemical or physical processes by which raw textile materials are made ready for use. Depending on the intended use, the appropriate finishing processes are applied.

Flammé

Flammé fabrics are modelled on the original look of linen fabrics. The structured, grainy surface is created by using fancy yarns with irregular thickenings (flame yarn, flame twist, bead yarn).

Flame retardant

flame-retardant or flame-retardant textiles must be used in all public areas or at public events. This is laid down in the Ordinance on Places of Assembly. In Germany the flame-retardant textiles are tested according to DIN 4102 B1 or EN 13501. Flame resistance does not mean that the textile does not burn, however - it means that it only ignites at a high temperature and also that less smoke is produced. This is to ensure that in the event of a fire, visitors have sufficient time to evacuate. Here...

Flannel

Collective term for all single or double-sided napped fabrics in plain or twill weave. Flannel is characterised by a clear, short pile and soft handle. The fibre cover is not so tightly rolled, so that the weave pattern is still visible. Due to their fineness, particularly light bed linen qualities are available on the market under the fancy names of fine flannel and fine flannel. Finette: Twill weave, napped on both sides. For shirts, bed linen etc.

Floating

In the case of woven fabrics: the technical term for a length of thread which, without binding, is either as a warp thread over a number of wefts or as a weft thread over a number of warp threads.

Fotté-Crêpe

(Bed linen quality) Imaginative name for a product whose look and feel is reminiscent of a terry or crepe fabric. The textured, grainy surface of this fabric in L 1/1 weave is achieved by terry yarns: In the warp = terry yarn in alternation; in the weft = terry yarn. This type of fabric hardly creases at all and only requires light ironing in exceptional cases.

Frottier

Terry fabrics (loop fabrics) are produced on specially designed terry weaving machines (dobby or jacquard). The fabrics consist of 3 thread systems: a tightly tensioned ground warp, a loose pile warp (also pile, loop or terry warp) and the weft. Depending on the quality of the fabric, weft groups (3 or 4 wefts) are attached at a distance corresponding to the loop height. When the weft group is beaten up, the pile warp is taken along by the weft group, forming loops alternately upwards and downwards. If the loop heads are cut open at the top on a shearing machine, woven terry velour is produced.

Fruette

Twill weave napped on both sides. For shirts, bed linen etc.

G

Gauze (Laser Gauze)

Gauze is a light and translucent fabric. However, gauze is usually associated with cotton, as the typical gauze bandages are also gauze. In English, however, a voile would also be called a gauze. A very transparent voile made of Polyester FR or Trevira CS is usually used as laser gauze, as it can be projected very well with a laser. The fabric is so thin that it is almost invisible (especially in black). look here...

 

Global Recycle Standard (GRS)

GRS is an international, voluntary, full-fledged product standard that sets requirements for the independent certification of recycled materials, the product chain, social and environmental practices and chemical restrictions.

Gminder Cotton

Brand name for single-coloured, plain cotton fabrics made from twisted yarns. The qualities are divided into fine - medium coarse - coarse, depending on the setting and yarn count. In its grainy structure it imitates linen fabric, or rather the former "Gminder half-linen".

GOTS

IBENA GOTS Zertifikat

The Global Organic Textile Standard (GOTS) is recognised as the world's leading standard for the processing of textiles made from organically produced natural fibres. At a high level, it defines environmental requirements along the entire textile production chain and at the same time demands compliance with social criteria.

On-site inspections and the certification of prepress operations, manufacturers and traders by independent, specially accredited testing institutes form the basis of the GOTS control system. This guarantees comprehensive safety for GOTS certified textiles.

IBENA also voluntarily undergoes these controls in the sense of sustainability and lived social responsibility.

 

H

Handicraft material

Counting fabric is the trade name for a plain weave fabric, which is particularly common for needlework lessons due to its clear weave pattern and easy handling in counting and embroidery.

House towel

Coarse-threaded, dense cotton fabric in plain weave for bed sheets, very hard-wearing.

Handle Blossom

Knitted fabrics produced in warp knitting technology, on the circular loom or on circular knitting machines. Characteristic are the yarn loops ("plush handles") of uniform length protruding on one side, which are connected to the ground stitches. The opposite side shows a stitch pattern. The fabric is stretchable.

I

Interlock

Fine, stretchable knitted fabric or double-faced weft knitted fabric (right-right-knitted). This means: Interlock is the combination of two 1/1 ribbed fabrics. Both fabric sides look the same and only show right-hand stitches. The fabric is smooth and does not appear ribbed.

J

Jacquard fabric

show large-area, varied weave patterns, as they are particularly evident in damask bed linen and table linen. The term jacquard goes back to the French inventor J.M. Jacquard (1752-1834), who invented a control system for looms in which the individual warp threads can be raised and lowered as desired during weaving with the aid of punched card bands. This made it possible to produce fabrics with large, complicated weaving patterns. Jacquard weaving is used whenever possible only when the costly technique promises a higher quality fabric character.

K

Kalmuk

Heavy cotton fabric in double weft technique with softly twisted weft material, heavily napped on both sides so that no weave is visible. Kalmuk is used as bedding and as a table and ironing board. Please have a look...

Kattun

Nettle fabrics, which are woven very finely and therefore represent the best quality of nettle fabrics in bed linen. They have an average of 29 threads/centimetre.

 

Knitted fabrics

They consist of a thread which runs through the fabric in a transverse direction and is intertwined by the needles to form a stitch. This fabric can be pulled up and tends to form drop stitches when the thread breaks

 

Krepp

siehe Crêpe

Krumpfen

Vorwegnehmen des Einlaufens von Textilien durch besondere Verfahren (Krumpfbehandlung). "Krumpfecht" ist eine Ware, die eine Krumpfbehandlung erfahren hat und je nach der gegebenen Vorschrift oder dem Verwendungszweck bei Nassbehandlung nicht oder nicht über ein bestimmtes Maß hinaus einläuft (s. a. Sanfor).

Kuliergewirke

Sie bestehen aus einem Faden, der in Querrichtung durch die Ware verläuft und durch die Nadeln zu Maschen verschlungen wurde. Diese Ware kann aufgezogen werden und neigt bei Fadenbruch zu Fallmaschenbildung.

L

Lancé

Designation for figuratively patterned fabrics where the pattern is formed by a second warp and/or weft system. This occurs in the fabric in stripes, even if the pattern itself does not show any stripes. A distinction is made between: weft lanceé = additional decorative or pattern weft, warp lanceé = special decorative or pattern warp, lancé quadrillé = additional pattern warp and pattern weft. The decorative threads not required for pattern formation on the upper side float on the reverse side between the weaves (patterns) over the entire fabric width or length or are tied in pointwise. If the floats are cut away (sheared off), the fabric is called Lancé découpé or also Broché imitation (Swiss expression: Scherli). In this way, the exposed threads are not pulled out so easily and do not show through in transparent qualities. In addition, the fabric becomes lighter. Distinguishing features: Lancé découpé is often confused with bronché, but is easily recognised by the open thread ends of the pattern edges.

Linen

Blended yarns produced according to special spinning processes (e.g. polyester and flax).

Linen and half-linen

Mostly woven in plain weave, with the typical yarn thickenings of flax.

Linen imitations

A term commonly used in the trade for fabrics (e.g. cotton or rayon fabrics) in which the linen structure (appearance of the fabric) is imitated by the thread structure (irregular yarn thickening) or by the weave chosen.

Linon

Smooth, canvas-covered cotton fabric. Differs from Cretonne and Renforcé in the glossy surface (effect by calendering) and the non-washable finish.

 

M

Maco damask

The fabric contains high-quality Egyptian and Sudanese cotton in warp and weft. The fabric is mercerized and has a particularly high thread density.

 

Mattress ticking

Strong linen, half-linen or cotton fabric for mattress covers in drill (drill or herringbone), twill or satin weave. Jacquard patterned mattress fabrics are sold under the name of mattress ticking jacquard or jacquard ticking.

Mercerizing

Finishing process (treatment with lye under tension), which gives cotton fabrics or yarns increased strength, better colour absorption and a silk-like, boil-proof and cleaning-resistant gloss.

Microfibre

is a collective term for fibres with a fineness of less than 1 dtex, i.e. 10 000 m of such microfibre weighing not more than 1 g. In comparison, the fineness of the natural fibres cotton is 1.5 to 2.5 dtex, new wool 3 to 6 dtex and silk 1.3 dtex.

Microfibre fabrics are exceptionally soft and dimensionally stable. Microfibres can be made of synthetic or natural materials, but microfibre fabrics are very often made of polyester.

Because microfibres are so fine, many of them can be packed together tightly. Many more fine fibres are needed to make a thread, which results in a larger thread surface. However, this makes it more difficult to dye the article very dark. Microfibre textiles are very resistant to lint.

Source: Wikipedia

Molton

Soft, canvas-binding cotton fabric - napped on both sides, in medium to heavy quality. Often also produced in double weft technique (upper and lower weft). Molton is used for underblankets, table mats, cotton baby blankets etc. Please have a look here...

N

Nettle

originally such fabrics were woven from nettles and hence the term nettle. In the meantime, however, the term is now used to refer to a cotton fabric woven in a plain weave, usually below 250 g/sqm (above that it is usually referred to as canvas). With cotton nettles in the bed linen sector, a distinction is made between cretonne, renforcé and calico. Please have a look here...

Non-flammable

are those substances that have less than 10% organic (and therefore combustible) content. You can therefore obtain A2 certification in accordance with DIN 4102 or EN 13501. For an A1 certification, the glass must have less than 1% organic content - this cannot be achieved with a textile. So pure glass can get an A1 certificate, but a fabric made of glass still has spinning preparations, for example, which increase the proportion of organic compounds. Thus a glass fabric has more than 1% but less than 10% organic content and can therefore achieve A2 certification. Please have a look here...

Nicky Velour

The term commonly used in the trade for sheared or cut plush (or knitted velour or other knitted velour). Nicky velour is sheared plush with handles. The raw material is subjected to a shearing process in the finishing department. During this process the handles (loops) are cut or partially sheared, creating a velvety surface.

O

OCS/RCS

Both standards are part of the non-profit organisation Textile Exchange. The Organic Content Standard (OCS) tracks organic material from the cotton farm to the end product. It checks whether an end product contains the right amount of organically grown material.

The Recycled Claim Standard (RCS) verifies recycled input materials and tracks the recycled raw material through the supply chain. The standard was developed through the work of the Materials Traceability Working Group.

 

P

Panama fabric

are fabrics woven with a panama weave. A Panama weave is a variant of the plain weave, only in the case of a plain weave one weft is woven with one warp thread and in the case of Panama two weft threads are woven with two warp threads. There could also be more than two warp weft threads, but this is very rare. Please have a look here...

Percale

The description here refers to high-quality bed linen qualities. Fine-threaded, densely woven fabric of cotton, in plain weave. Due to its fineness and density, percale is particularly suitable as a basis for softly coloured print designs with fine patterning.

PES - Polyester

is a high-performance plastic from which, among other things, fibres can also be made. Polyester fibres thus belong to the synthetic fibres and are very tear and abrasion resistant. They also hardly absorb any moisture. However, a fabric made of PES must be heat-set at a minimum of 190 C, otherwise the fabric has no dimensional stability. Please have a look here...

Pit scarf

Towel fabric with a chessboard, light/dark cube pattern (often white/blue) made of cotton, half-linen or linen. The cube pattern is created by pattern changes (warp and weft twill) and different yarn dyeing (warp light - weft dark). Pit towel is mainly used as a hard-wearing kitchen towel.

Plain weave

The plain weave is the simplest and at the same time closest crossing of warp and weft threads. Each warp thread lies alternately once above and once below the individual weft threads of plain weave L 1:1.

Print

One of the most important design processes for household textiles. Today, almost without exception, mechanical processes are used for this purpose. The most important printing processes are: Rouleaux printing, machine film printing, hot transfer printing   Printed textiles should generally not be washed hotter than 60°C.

R

Rapport

In weaving, the term for the totality of the binding threads until the binding is repeated (binding repeat). It determines the overall appearance of the weave in warp and weft direction, joined together in uninterrupted sequence.

Raschel lace

Knitting point produced on the Raschel machine (warp knitting machine) Raschel lace is an imitation of woven lace.

Roughening

Roughening of fabrics to give them a fluffy, soft handle. Roughened fabrics, such as flannel, molleton, beaver etc., pass through a scraper room machine once or several times. During this process, fibre ends are transferred to the fabric surface. Rough fabrics, which are roughened on one or both sides, are more pliable, more absorbent and, due to the greater air entrapment, more heat-containing than smooth fabrics.

Reach

The Reach Regulation is the European Chemicals Regulation for the Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals. It is intended to ensure protection for human health and the environment. Manufacturers, importers and users must ensure that the chemicals they produce and distribute are used safely. the certification of products by Reach is not voluntary, which is required by the EU.

Renforcé

Smooth, medium-fine cotton quality in plain weave. More fine-threaded and therefore of higher quality than cretonne. Available raw, bleached, dyed and printed.

 

S

Sanfor

"Sanfor" - protected trademark for fabrics that have been shrink-proofed using a special process and tested according to the standard regulations of the licensing company. The Sanfor standard of +/- 1% means that fabrics with the Sanfor label may not shrink or lengthen in the laundry by more than 1% in width and length. The term "Sanfor" or "Sanfor Standard" refers only to the fabric, not to the process itself. This is known as controlled, compressive shrinkage (Cluett system), which is a purely mechanical process (compression) carried out on special machines.

Satin Down Density

Down-proof satin is a weft satin (atlas or satin weave) in which the weft thread passes over four warp threads and under the fifth. Due to the open weave, the fabric construction must be such that even more warp and weft threads per cm² are used than with ticking and weft insertion.

Satin stripe dot cube

Fabrics patterned by glued-together weft and warp atlas weaves.

Satin/Atlas

(see also Atlas weave) Satin is the French term for atlas. It is characterized by the smooth, closed, matt to very shiny fabric surface. A distinction is made between warp and weft satin or warp and weft satin. Warp satin shows more warp threads on the right side of the fabric, weft satin shows more weft threads. Atlas and satin fabrics always have thread floats over at least four threads. The right and left fabric side always show a different structure. In practice, light, fine-threaded fabrics in satin weave are usually designated satin and heavy, strong fabrics satin.

Sound insulation molton

Roughened surfaces and high fabric weight dampens the background noise in the room, such as reverberation and background noise. This so-called absorption capacity of sound-absorbing molton is therefore often used as sound-absorbing wall cladding, ceiling suspension or as an acoustic improvement. Heavy molleton materials are used for rehearsal rooms, recording studios, restaurants and rest areas in care facilities such as hospitals and nursing homes.

The degree of damping varies depending on the pitch. Medium-frequency and high pitches can be absorbed very well with sound-absorbing molleton and molleton materials are therefore also known as "high-frequency absorbers". At lower frequencies, however, more must be done and a significantly higher amount of material must be expected, because basses are less absorbed by molleton.

A distinction is made between sound damping and sound absorption. Acoustic sound insulation is intended to improve the acoustics in a room such as a recording studio. Often walls and ceilings are suspended with molleton to achieve sound recordings without disturbing background noise. Here...

Shearing - brushing - cutting

For fabrics such as terry velour, nicky etc., the additional thread system intended for the pile is cut open. By shearing one or more times, an even pile height is achieved; by brushing the pile is raised and the sheared yarn parts are removed.

Scotchgard

Protected designation for a fluorine-based stain protection finish. Fabrics finished with Scotchgard (oleophol) have oil (grease) and water repellent properties. Oils, fats, milk, cream, sauces, coffee, fruit juices, alcohol, ink and similar stains can usually be removed by dabbing with an absorbent cloth or paper handkerchief.

Seersucker

Fabric with crepe-like, stripe-like raised areas.

There are two different manufacturing variants:



1. in weaving, threads with different yarn tensions are used, or threads which, due to their different construction, have a different elasticity in the finish during washing, resulting in the typical crepe effect.



2. lye is applied during printing or finishing of the fabric, which also produces the desired crepe effect.

Singeing

Burning of protruding fibre ends to achieve a smooth yarn or a particularly smooth surface. This gives the finished product a more attractive appearance and reduces soiling.

Setting

It characterizes the closedness of a fabric and indicates how many threads are located on a certain area (e.g. cm²) in warp or weft direction. If two numbers are separated by diagonal stitch, e.g. 28/23, the first indicates the warp and the second the weft thread count.

Sharktooth

is a bobbinet fabric used on stage with the property that it appears either permeable or impermeable depending on the light. If the headlights illuminate the Sharktooth from the front, the unlit stage behind the Sharktooth cannot be seen. If the headlights illuminate the stage behind the Sharktooth, you can hardly see the Sharktooth anymore or you can look through it. Please have a look...

Shirting

a cotton fabric woven with a plain weave and relatively light (100-200 g/qm). Shirting is always also a nettle fabric, but it is always bleached white and is often used as a background for a projection at trade fairs and events. The shirting is usually stretched on wooden walls and then projected from the front. Please have a look...

Single-Jersey

Designation for fine, smooth knitwear or for single-surface weft knitwear. It is produced on machines with one needle row. The term right-left fabric, which is also commonly used for single jersey, is particularly applicable, as one side of the fabric has only right stitches and the other only left stitches.

Sound Absorber

are such acoustic fabrics that are used for sound insulation and sound reduction. A distinction must be made as to whether a volume reduction is to take place in the room or in the adjacent room. The so-called reverberation time can also be significantly reduced by sound absorbers - of course, the quantity used must be in proportion to the size of the room. Please have a look...

Standard 100 by Öko-Tex

The label tests textiles for their pollutant content. In principle, textile products of all processing stages are suitable for certification, from yarns to finished fabrics and finished articles. The prints and coatings applied to the outer fabric can also be tested.

Stretch

Reference to fabrics (woven or knitted) which have particular elasticity. This is achieved in a variety of ways, e.g. by using textured yarns, elastane threads or by finishing. The construction of the respective goods also plays an important role. Please have a look here...

T

Terrycloth

In contrast to terry towelling fabric, it is produced on normal looms. The designation terry is reserved for certain fabrics made from fancy yarns. The weft consists of very plastic, thick terry yarns with strong loop formation. When woven, a grainy, loopy fabric with a dull, uneven surface is thus produced.

Textile digital printing media for dispersion inks

Disperse inks are particularly suitable for synthetic materials such as polyester. A subspecies here are the sublimation inks, which are needed for fabrics in direct printing as well as in thermal transfer printing.

The fixing of the inks is done by contact heat or contact-free heat fixing. In most cases a calender is used here.

Textile digital printing with reactive ink

reactive inks, require a special finish on the fibre in textile digital printing and work mainly on natural fibres or on CEL regenerated fibres.

After printing, a water vapour treatment is required, as well as an acidic after-wash.

Other ink systems used in digital textile printing are acid inks, pigment inks and dispersion inks (e.g. sublimation ink).

Textile digital print media adapted to the respective ink systems lead to sharply contoured, brilliant results.

 

Textile Fibres

Fibres are the beginning of all fabrics. The basis for the production of textile structures is the fibre. It largely determines the later properties of the finished product. A basic distinction is made between natural fibres and man-made fibres. All types of fibres can be processed into high-quality textiles - provided that the yarn and fabric are designed, finished or refined and processed in accordance with the intended use.

Ticking

Ticking is a cotton fabric with a warp twill weave 2/1, the slightly softer twisted weft yarn goes under two warp threads through and over the third. The smooth and somewhat harder twisted warp threads determine the surface appearance of the right side of the fabric. Two thirds of the softer weft yarn on the inside, in combination with feather and down particles, causes a fine felting of the fabric surface when used. This further increases the already existing fabric density.

Tissue

are textile fabrics which are produced by shedding two threads of two thread systems - warp and weft - crossing each other at right angles. Warp = threads in longitudinal direction Weft = threads in transverse direction The way in which warp and weft are crossed is called weave. Weave, yarn count and setting (yarn density) are the essential components of a fabric. In addition to the three basic weave types, there are a large number of variants derived from the basic weave types, as well as special weave types.

Top

Designation for transparent fabrics whose threads combine in a characteristic way, depending on the process used, to form an openwork, net-like ground or a variety of patterns in such a way that the joints cannot be displaced. A basic distinction is made between handmade lace (also known as genuine lace) and mechanically produced mesh lace, which often looks deceptively similar to genuine lace. Machine lace has a particularly high degree of regularity of the ground and pattern. All machine laces can be produced according to their construction on bobbin, lace, embroidery, bobbin lace or Raschel machines.

Towelling velour

Designation for dense terry towelling with cut loops (on the top side). Additional fulling and shearing of the fabric produces a plush, velvety surface, while the reverse side has loops.

Distinguishing features. Briefly summarised and easy to remember:


Terrycloth:

Fabric from a normal loom:
- looped fabric appearance due to terry yarn in the weft
- Loops cannot be pulled up

Trevira CS®

Trevira is a registered trademark of Trevira GmbH, a company that primarily produces polyester fibres. In 1980 Trevira succeeded in producing and patenting a permanently flame-retardant polyester fibre, Trevira CS fibre. The CS stands for Comfort and Safety. When the patents expire, many other companies also produce permanently flame-retardant polyester fibres, most of which are then awarded PES FR.

Tufting

Designation for needle-pile fabrics produced on special machines (multi-needle looms) by using a number of needles to draw the pile yarn in the form of loops through a textile base material. The closed loops can be cut open, creating a velvet or velour-like surface.

Twill weave

Twill woven fabrics can usually be recognised at first glance by the diagonal twill ridges. The ridges are caused by the diagonal offset of the weave points. The burr direction is indicated by the capital letters Z or S. The smallest repeat of a twill comprises 3 warp and 3 weft threads. Twill is usually designated according to the thread system, which is mainly visible on the upper side of the fabric: weft twill shows mainly weft threads on the upper side of the fabric. Each warp thread lies once above and twice below the individual weft threads, so that the weft is more visible. Twill weave K 1:2 Z Warp twill shows mainly warp threads on the upper side of the fabric. Each warp thread lies twice above and once below the individual weft threads. Twill weave K 2:1 S.

Twisted terry towelling

Is manufactured from predominantly twisted yarns. Due to the harder pile loops (in contrast to full pile terry) a stronger terry effect is achieved. Special features: firm handle, high durability.

V

Voile

comes from the French and means veil. It is a very transparent and fine-threaded fabric, woven in plain weave and weighs between 50-70 g/sqm. Nowadays mostly made of polyester, because it is much cheaper to make a super thin and even thread of polyester than of cotton. Look here...

W

Warp-knitted fabric

They consist of a large number of threads (thread chain) which run lengthwise through the fabric and which have been intertwined to form stitches. This fabric cannot be pulled up and is fall-knit-proof. In addition, weft threads can be incorporated in the transverse direction and warp threads which do not form stitches in the longitudinal direction. Term which frequently appears as an additional designation in connection with knitted fabrics.

Waffle cloth

The name is derived from the type of binding. Fabrics in waffle weave have a square pattern, plastic on the top and bottom, which looks similar to waffle biscuits. This effect is achieved by a group of warp and weft floats, both of which are shortening. The floating threads ensure good moisture absorption. The weave is used in the household textiles sector for towels, bedspreads and waffle covers.

Walking Terry

In this terry towelling the loop warp consists of simple (untwisted) yarns. The fulling process (wet boiling treatment) also results in a particularly soft and fluffy handle. Feature: high absorbency. Fulling terry towelling is easily recognisable by the irregularly laid, not upright loops.

 

 

Y

Yarns

Natur- und Chemiefasern werden zu Garnen und Zwirnen verarbeitet.

Garn im Sinne von "Einfach-Garn", ist ein einfädiges textiles Gebilde, bestehend aus Spinnfasern oder Filamenten (Endlosfasern). Spinnfasergarn besteht aus einer Anzahl Spinnfasern, die durch Verdrehen (Spinnen) zusammengehalten werden. Ein Filamentgarn besteht aus einem oder mehreren Filament(en), ohne oder mit Drehung hergestellt.

Gefachtes Garn: Zwei oder mehr einfache Garne oder Zwirne, die zusammen gespult, jedoch nicht miteinander verdreht sind.

Zwirn: Sammelbegriff für alle linienförmigen, textilen Gebilde, die durch Zusammendrehen (Zwirnen) einfacher Garne und/oder Zwirne gleicher oder verschiedener Art entstanden sind. Einstufige Zwirne werden in einem Zwirnvorgang aus zwei oder mehr einfachen Garnen hergestellt. Mehrstufige Zwirne werden in einem oder mehreren zusätzlichen Zwirnvorgängen aus einstufigen und/oder mehrstufigen Zwirnen, gegebenenfalls auch unter Mitverwendung von einfachen Garnen, hergestellt. Durch das Zwirnen wird die Festigkeit des Fadens gesteigert und die Gleichmäßigkeit verbessert. Zwirne sind fester und widerstandsfähiger als Garne gleicher Feinheit. Durch entsprechende Abwandlung in der Verarbeitung kann man den Zwirnen Mustereffekte verleihen. Die bekanntesten Zwirne dieser Art sind Frotté-, Flammen-, Noppen-, Kräusel-, Schlingen,- und Raupenzwirn. Bei Stoffbezeichnungen weist das Wort "Zwirn" darauf hin, dass es sich um ein besonders festes und dauerhaftes Material handelt, das aus gezwirnten Garnen besteht.

Spezielle Garne:

Gekämmte und supergekämmte Garne: Sie bestehen aus langen, hochwertigen Fasern, die kurzen Fasern wurden mit Hilfe einer Kämmaschine ausgeschieden bzw. ausgekämmt. Der Prozentsatz der ausgekämmten Fasern entscheidet über die Kennzeichnung. Das Verfahren verteuert das Material, macht aber die daraus hergestellten Stoffe besonder glatt, glänzend und haltbar.

Texturierte Garne: Endlose Chemiefasern, die durch ein Texturierverfahren permanent verformt werden, bezeichnet man als texturierte Garne, Kräusel- bzw. Stretch-Garne. Durch das Texturieren (Oberflächenverformung), das heute in unzähligen Variationen möglich ist, erhalten die Garne spezielle Eigenschaften wie z.B. Kräuselung, größere Elastizität, voluminöseren und weicheren Griff, erhöhte Feuchtigkeitsaufnahme, höheren Lufteinschluss etc. Mischgarne (Mischgespinste) bestehen aus Mischungen verschiedener Faserarten.

Z